NATIONAL PARKS

Arusha

Gombe Stream

Katavi

Kilimanjaro

Kitulo Plateau

Mahale Mountains

Lake Manyara

Mikumi

Mkomazi

Ruaha

Rubondo Island

Saadani

Serengeti

Tarangire

Udzungwa

Corporate Information

Contents

THE ARUSHA MANIFESTO

 Over fifty years ago
the first President of the United
Republic of Tanzania, the
late Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere,
recognized the integral part wildlife plays
in this country. In September 1961 at a
symposium on the Conservation of Nature and
Natural Resources, he gave a speech that laid the
foundation for conservation in post-independent
Tanzania. The extract of that speech has become known
as the Arusha Manifesto.

The survival of our wildlife is a matter of grave concern to
all of us in Africa. These wild creatures amid the wild places they
inhabit are not only important as a source of wonder and
inspiration but are an integral part of our natural resources
and our future livelihood and well being.

In accepting the trusteeship of our wildlife, we solemnly
 declare that we will do everything in our power to make sure
 that our children’s grandchildren will be able to enjoy this
rich and precious inheritance.

The conservation of wildlife and wild places calls for
specialist knowledge, trained manpower, and
money and we look to other nations to
co-operate with us in this important task -
the success or failure of which not only
affects the continent of Africa but
the rest of the world as well.”

Giraffe in the sunset

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ESTABLISHMENT

The Tanganyika National Parks Ordinance CAP [412] of 1959 established the organization now known as Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA), and Serengeti became the first National Park. Currently TANAPA is governed by the National Parks Ordinance Chapter 282 of the 2002 revised edition of the Laws of the United Republic of Tanzania. Conservation in Tanzania is governed by the Wildlife Conservation Act of 1974, which allows the Government to establish protected areas and outlines how these are to be organized and managed. National Parks represent the highest level of resource protection that can be provided. By 2014, TANAPA had grown to 16 national parks, covering approximately 57,024 square kilometres as follows:

S/N

Name

Area (km2)

1.

Ruaha National Park

20,300

2.

Serengeti National Park

14,763

3.

Katavi National Park

 4,471

4.

Mkomazi National Park

3,245

5.

Mikumi National Park

3,230

6.

Tarangire National Park

2,600

7.

Udzungwa Mountains National Park

1,900

8.

Kilimanjaro National Park

1,668

9.

Mahale Mountains National Park

1,618

10.

Saadani National Park

1,100

11.

Arusha National Park

   552

12.

Rubondo Island National Park

  457

13.

Kitulo National Park

  413

14.

Lake Manyara National Park

  648

15.

Gombe National Park

   56

16.

Saanane National Park

    2.8

 

 TOTAL

 57,023.8

Conservation of eco-systems and tourism development in all areas designated as national parks is the core business of the organisation.

Nature-based or wildlife tourism is the main source of income that is ploughed back for management, regulation and fulfilment of all organisational mandates in the national parks.
                               

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Principal activities

The primary role of Tanzania National Parks is conservation. The 16 national parks, many of which form the core of a much larger protected ecosystem, have been set aside to preserve the country’s rich natural heritage and to provide secure breeding grounds where its fauna and flora can thrive, safe from the conflicting interests of a growing human population.

TANAPA is particularly charged with functions of:

VISION
Sustainable Conservation and Tourism Excellence

MISSION
Sustainable Conservation for Development

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MANDATE

To manage and regulate the use of areas designated as National Parks by such means and measures to preserve the country’s heritage, encompassing natural and cultural resources, both tangible and intangible resource values, including the fauna and flora, wildlife habitat, natural processes, wilderness quality and scenery therein and to provide for human benefit and enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for future generations.

REGISTERED OFFICE & ORGANIZATION HEADQUARTERS

Mwalimu J.K. Nyerere Conservation Centre,
Burka Estate, Dodoma Road,
P.O.  Box 3134, Arusha.
Telephone: +255 27 2503471/2501930
Fax:         +255 27 2508216
Email: dg@tanzaniaparks.com
             info@tanzaniaparks.com
Website: www.tanzaniaparks.com

PARENT MINISTRY

Ministry of Natural Resources & Tourism,
P.O. Box 9372, Dar es Salaam.
Tel:        +255 22 2864230
                +255 22 2861870 / 74
Fax:        +255 22 2864234
Email:  ps@mnrt.go.tz
Website: www.mnrt.go.tz

AUDITORS

CONTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERAL
Office of the Controller and Auditor General,
The National Audit Office, Samora/Ohio Street,
P.O.  Box 9080, Dar es Salaam.
Telephone: +255 22 211 5157
Facsimile: +255 22   211 7527
Email:    ocag@nao.go.tz
Website: www.nao.go.tz

BANKERS

CRDB (T) Ltd
National Bank of Commerce Ltd
National Microfinance Bank Ltd
Exim Bank (T) Ltd

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Governing Instruments

Being a parastatal organization, TANAPA is governed by a number of instruments including the National Parks Act, Chapter 282 of the 2002 (Revised Edition) and the Wildlife Conservation Act No. 5 of 2009. Others are the National Policies for National Parks in Tanzania (reviewed in 2013), the five year Corporate Strategic Plan (CSP), parks’ specific General Management Plans (GMPs), the Development and Lease Agreement Procedures (DALP), as well as other relevant national laws and policies.

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Protection of Park Resources, Facilities and Visitors

It is the responsibility of TANAPA to ensure security and safety of visitors, park inhabitants, wildlife and park infrastructures. Although security is the responsibility of every park inhabitant, the Organization has rangers who are directly responsible for this.
To ensure that rangers are equipped with the right skills to execute their duties, different kinds of training are conducted and equipment procured to ease their tasks. Training focuses on wildlife protection, strategic field patrol methods, intelligence gathering operations and use of modern intelligence and security equipment.

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Ecosystem Health Monitoring and Management

HippoThe national parks are endowed with rich and diverse habitats and ecosystems which support diverse wildlife populations. Regular monitoring of these systems is done in order to have an early warning of future scenarios. Weather parameters are monitored in all the parks throughout the year. Wildlife censuses are carried out in the parks regularly to establish population sizes, trends and distribution.
Regular environmental audits are conducted for visitors’ facilities and recommendations suggested to rectify the anomalies observedl  All development projects undertaken in the parks are subject to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies.
Wildlife health in all the national parks is closely monitored. Inventory, mapping and eradication of invasive exotic species is conducted in affected parks. Early burning is conducted to mitigate the impact of dry season hot fires and to preserve forage for herbivores for the dry season. This is achieved through the mosaic of burned and unburned patches created by the early burning fires.
Wildlife related research in the national parks is encouraged in collaboration with the Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute (TAWIRI).

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Community Support and Conservation Education

Beach hutDifferent approaches are adopted to provide conservation education to various conservation stakeholders.
The Organization extends financial support to 577 villages bordering national parks for implementation of community development projects through the program of Support for Community Initiated Projects (SCIP). These projects focus on education, health, transportation and water supply.
The organization is conducting a feasibility study to adopt a TANAPA Income Generating Projects (TIGPs) as a complement to SCIP where Community Conservation Banks (COCOBA) and Village Community Banks (VICOBA) will be introduced. The aim is to effectively contribute to poverty alleviation for the communities living around the national parks, while gaining their support for conservation.

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Contribution to Conservation Collaborators

The Organization appreciates the role played by sister institutions in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism and others in helping it to achieve its mandate. In reciprocation of the good spirit and efforts, TANAPA extends required support to such institutions as the College of African of Wildlife Management, Mweka, Pasiansi Wildlife Training College, TAWIRI and Tanzania Tourist Board (TTB).

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Tourism Development and Promotion

WaterfallThe Organization continues to embrace tourism as its main source of revenue for its operations. For that reason, TANAPA continues to ensure that more tourism products  and activities are developed and promoted to diversify the tourism experience in the parks. Analysis indicates that newly developed tourist attractions have a significant annual average growth in popularity, park value and visitor experience and hence visitor satisfaction.

As one of the marketing strategies the Organization in collaboration with other stakeholders continues to aggressively promote the country’s tourist attractions both locally and internationally.

In order to promote domestic tourism, TANAPA continues to build affordable accommodation facilities in the parks and encourages the private sector to invest in the provision of logistic services targeting the local market.

Improvement of tourist facilities in the parks and their surroundings is emphasized too.

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Tourism Performance

Tented CampAverage annual growth of tourist numbers for the past five years i.e. from 2008/2009 to 2012/2013 was 55,712 which is 8.1 %.  Annual revenue growth for the same period was TZS 12.11 billion, which is 10.9 %. This has been made possible through efforts made by the Organization to market the unique attractions the country is endowed within its national parks as well as ever improving customer services offered by TANAPA employees and other stakeholders in the hospitality industry.

In 2012/2013, the number of tourists recorded in our National Parks was 901,892, of which 537,675 were foreign tourists and 364,217 were locals.

Likewise, revenue generated was TZS 124.806 billion in the year 2012/2013 which is an increase of 0.04% compared to the previous year’s revenue which was TZS 124.758 billion. As it has been in many past years, Kilimanjaro and Serengeti National Parks continue to generate a surplus while Arusha, Tarangire and Lake Manyara National Parks generated revenue sufficient to break even. Efforts are being made to ensure that Arusha, Tarangire and Lake Manyara National Parks generate surplus revenue and the “dependant” national parks (the remaining eleven parks) at least break even and thus get away from dependency syndrome.  

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Parks arrivals highlights

Table : Number of tourist arrivals to parks for the year 2012/2013

S/N

PARKS

FOREIGN

DOMESTIC

TOTAL

1

 ARUSHA

33106

33702

66808

2

 GOMBE

1094

760

1854

3

 KATAVI

1512

1623

3135

4

 KILIMANJARO 

54584

3876

58460

5

 KITULO 

117

292

409

6

 LAKE MANYARA

126124

52349

178473

7

 MAHALE MOUNTAINS

1032

42

1074

8

 MIKUMI

20308

21358

41666

9

 MKOMAZI

597

990

1587

10

 RUAHA

12963

8304

21267

11

 RUBONDO ISLAND

492

256

748

12

 SAADANI  

4185

11230

15415

13

 SERENGETI

175356

160821

336177

14

 TARANGIRE

102140

59652

161792

15

 UDZUNGWA  MOUNTAINS

3878

3871

7749

16 

 SAANANE

187

5091

5278

 

 TOTAL

537,675

364,217

901,892

 

Table : Five year visitors’ statistics trend 2008/2009 - 2012/2013
     

S/N

YEAR

TOTAL NUMBER OF VISITORS

1

2008-2009

736,829

2

2009-2010

679,006

3

2010-2011

682,218

4

2011-2012

942,664

5

2012 – 2013

901,892

 VISITORS STATISTICS FIVE YEARS 2008/2009 – 2012/2013

 

fishermanDespite slight decline in number of tourists as well as insignificant increase in revenue, the Organization continues to meet its objectives.
To improve tourism activities in the parks, TANAPA continues to identify and develop tourism products in several parks such as: a VIP route to scale Mount Kilimanjaro, erection of hideouts along the bank of the Mara River in Serengeti National Park for visitors’ close view experience of the wildebeest migration crossing the river, boardwalk ways and hippo pool view point in Lake Manyara and enhancing water tourism activities in Saadani, Mahale Mountains, Gombe, Saanane and Rubondo Island National Parks. These newly developed tourism products are expected to diversify tourism activities and hence influence visitors to spend more days in the national parks. Other tourism activities underway are canopy walkways in Lake Manyara, boat excursions in Saanane and Saadani, paragliding in mountainous parks, intensifying walking and night game drives in all parks.  

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OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES

Economic crisis

Carrying out our Mandate has been done to a satisfactory level despite the prevailing challenges economically and socially.  The economic crisis in the Euro Zone and the safety instability in the neighboring countries greatly impacted on the number of foreign visitors from whom TANAPA largely receives its income.  Visitors from abroad decreased by 8.2% from 581,620 in the previous year to 537,675 in the year 2012/2013.  Ordinarily, the visitors’ level would have indicated a 5% increase as per the expected growth trend.

Unexpected events

There have been unexpected events of floods resulting from heavy rains which cause severe and devastating impact on roads infrastructure. This necessitates major rehabilitation of damaged bridges, roads and trails in affected areas notable of which were in Lake Manyara, Tarangire, Ruaha, Saadani and Serengeti National Parks. These affect park accessibility and operations.

Conservation costs

Conservation involves costly tasks and must be done regardless whether or not the areas being conserved generate income.

TANAPA has been managing a growing number of national parks for the past 54 years. In fulfilling this endeavor, it has endured several challenges some of which emanate from outside the parks. Some of the challenges are too complex or broad in scope for TANAPA alone to handle. This report provides an overview of the major challenges endured in the review period.

Livestock grazing in the parks

Livestock grazing is a growing conservation challenge in the parks.  Wildlife and livestock have traditionally co-existed in pastoral systems where optimal stocks combined with rotational grazing have been practiced - such as in the Maasai pastoral communities. However, the rapid human and livestock populations increase adjacent to the parks coupled with technological advances in agriculture has destroyed traditional community pasturelands.

Consequently, there is an acute shortage of grazing lands amid hiking livestock populations, farming land, settlements and uncertain climatic conditions. These factors have forced the local pastoral communities to repeatedly illegally enter the parks in search of water, pasture and even salt licks for their livestock.

The impacts of livestock incursions into the parks are multiple and variable in nature and scope. Overgrazing can rapidly deteriorate the grazing pasture for wildlife and even lead to declines of wildlife. Livestock can also exchange diseases with wildlife such as Anthrax, Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF), Rabies and Canine Distemper which may quickly rise to epidemic proportions killing wildlife in masses.

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Tourism Development adjacent National Parks

GiraffesOf recent, there has been an increase in the number of accommodation facilities such as tented camps, lodges and campsites as well as tourism activities adjacent to the national parks. These developments can be viewed in two ways. On one hand, local communities benefit economically hence are expected to support the conservation efforts of TANAPA. However, on the other hand, these developments seem to be future competitors of TANAPA. These developments have a direct impact on the carrying capacity of respective parks and hence visitor experience.

There is also a possibility of compromising the quality of goods and services provided by these facilities that may in turn affect visitation and number of tourist arrivals in the country.

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Mining in the National Parks

There are two national parks currently facing challenges caused by mining; these are Lake Manyara and Saadani. In the former, alexandrite and emerald gemstones are being mined on a small scale basis within Marang’ Forest in Lake Manyara National Park.

On the other hand, salt mining has been conducted in Saadani since 1992 when it was still a Game Reserve. These activities pose significant threat to conservation and management of the parks, including pollution due to unregulated wastes disposal, introduction of invasive plant species, poaching, destruction of wildlife migratory routes and others.  

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Poaching

ForestPoaching has continued to be the major challenge facing national parks. In particular, the recent poaching wave involving killing elephants in almost all national parks.

For decades, most of the communities living adjacent to the national parks have depended on the parks to cater for bush meat and other subsistence needs like firewood, grass and pasture. Due to population increase, demand for bush meat has also increased to cater for both subsistence and commercial needs and thus poached products are traded both locally and internationally.

In addressing this problem of escalated poaching, TANAPA has invariably increased and diversified anti-poaching strategies over the years, including increasing budgetary allocations, increasing the number of rangers and strengthening intelligence gathering and prosecution activities. Training in these areas has also been stepped up.

Innovative intervention approaches banking on TANAPA’s experiences are pursued to combat the poaching menace. These approaches must attract both stakeholders’ support and political will.

This simply means that TANAPA cannot work in isolation. It is our duty to seek every possible support in order to ensure that the precious natural resources that we manage are conserved for the enjoyment and prosperity of the present and future generations, failure of which will not only impact Tanzania, but the entire world.

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